Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode in Zymosan-Induced Arthritis
de Morais NC, Barbosa AM, Vale ML, Villaverde AB, de Lima CJ, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR.
Laboratory of Inflammation, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraí ba , Sáo José dos Campos, Brazil.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Sep 25. [PMID: 19780633]
Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diode (LED) on formation of edema, increase in vascular permeability, and articular joint hyperalgesia in zymosan-induced arthritis.
Background data: It has been suggested that low-level laser and LED irradiation can modulate inflammatory processes.
Material and methods: Arthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (250-280 g) by intra-articular injection of zymosan (1 mg in 50 microL of a sterile saline solution) into one rear knee joint. Animals were irradiated immediately, 1 h, and 2 h after zymosan administration with a semiconductor laser (685 nm and 830 nm) and an LED at 628 nm, with the same dose (2.5 J/cm(2)) for laser and LED. In the positive control group, animals were injected with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone 1 h prior to the zymosan administration. Edema was measured by the wet/dry weight difference of the articular tissue, the increase in vascular permeability was assessed by the extravasation of Evans blue dye, and joint hyperalgesia was measured using the rat knee-joint articular incapacitation test.
Results: Irradiation with 685 nm and 830 nm laser wavelengths significantly inhibited edema formation, vascular permeability, and hyperalgesia. Laser irradiation, averaged over the two wavelengths, reduced the vascular permeability by 24%, edema formation by 23%, and articular incapacitation by 59%. Treatment with LED (628 nm), with the same fluence as the laser, had no effect in zymosan-induced arthritis.
Conclusion: LLLT reduces inflammatory signs more effectively than LED irradiation with similar irradiation times (100 sec), average outputs (20 mW), and energy doses (2 J) in an animal model of zymosan-induced arthritis. The anti-inflammatory effects of LLLT appear to be a class effect, which is not wavelength specific in the red and infrared parts of the optical spectrum.
Effects of Laser on the Synovial Fluid in the Inflammatory Process of the Knee Joint of the Rabbit
Sandoval MC, Mattiello-Rosa SM, Soares EG, Parizotto NA.
School of Physical Therapy, Industrial University of Santander, Bucaramanga, Columbia.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2009 Feb 2 [PMID: 19187016]
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser (LLL) energy on the clinical signs of inflammation and the cellular composition of synovial fluid (SF) in the inflamed knee of the rabbit.
Background data: There are few findings related to the effects of LLL on SF in inflammatory processes and there is little knowledge about the optimal parameters for reducing joint inflammation.
Materials and methods: Inflammation in the right knee of 36 rabbits was induced by intracapsular injection (0.2 mL) of Terebinthina commun (Tc). The animals were randomly assigned to three groups: acute experimental group (AEG), chronic experimental group (CEG), and control group (CG), which only received Tc. Each group was divided in two subgroups of six animals each. The AEG and CEG groups began to receive laser treatment 2 and 5 d after the induction of inflammation, respectively. Laser irradiation at a wavelength of 830 nm, power output of 77 mW, and power density of 27.5 W/cm(2) was applied daily for 7 d for either 0.12 sec or 0.32 sec, resulting in doses of 3.4 J/cm(2) and 8 J/cm(2), respectively. Body mass, joint perimeter, joint temperature, and the morphology of the SF were analyzed.
Results: There was no statistically significant differences between groups in the body mass, joint perimeter, and SF morphology.
Conclusion: Laser irradiation with the selected parameters produced only a few subtle differences in the inflammatory signs and the SF. The lack of effects may have been due to the short irradiation time.
Arthralgia of the temporomandibular joint and low-level laser therapy.
Fikácková H, Dostálová T, Vosická R, Peterová V, Navrátil L, Lesák J.
Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. email@example.com
Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Aug;24(4):522-7. [PMID: 16942435]
Objective: This case report describes the treatment of a patient with arthralgia of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) caused by disc displacement.
Background data: The goal of the treatment of TMJ arthralgia is to decrease pain by promotion of the musculoskeletal system’s natural healing ability.
Methods: This report describes the complex treatment of TMJ arthralgia. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was chosen for its antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laser therapy was carried out using the GaAlAs diode laser with an output power of 400 mW, emitting radiation with a wavelength of 830 nm, and having energy density of 15 J/cm2; the laser radiation was applied by contact mode on four targeted spots in 10 sessions. Physiotherapy was recommended to this patient to prevent the injury of intraarticular tissue caused by incorrect movement during opening of the mouth. Splint stabilization and prosthetic treatment were used to reduce overloading of the TMJ, resulting from unstable occlusion and to help repositioning of the dislocated disc.
Results: Five applications of LLLT led to decrease of pain in the area of the TMJ on the Visual Analog Scale, from 20 to 5 mm. The anti-inflammatory effect of the laser was confirmed by thermographic examination. Before treatment, the temperature differences between the areas of the normal TMJ and TMJ with arthralgia was higher than 0.5 degrees C. However, at the conclusion of LLLT, temperatures in the areas surrounding the TMJ were equalized.
Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of complex non-invasive treatment in patients with arthralgia of the TMJ. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of LLLT were confirmed by infrared thermography.
Effect of low-level laser therapy after implantation of poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid in the femurs of rats.
Freddo AL, Rodrigo SM, Massotti FP, Etges A, de Oliveira MG.
School of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Lasers Med Sci. 2009 Sep;24(5):721-8. Epub 2008 Nov 15. [PMID: 19011949]
This study evaluated the use of red and infrared lasers on tissue surrounding the femurs of 60 rats randomly divided into three groups after implantation of bioabsorbable plates. The control group were not subjected to laser irradiation; group A was treated with red laser [indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide (InGaAlP) laser, wavelength 685 nm, 35 mW, continuous wave (CW), Ø = 0.06 cm, 2.23 min], and group B was subjected to infrared laser [gallium-aluminum-arsenium (GaAlAs) laser, wavelength 830 nm, 50 mw, CW, Ø = 0.06 cm, 1.41 min], both at 10 J/cm(2). Samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and examined microscopically. Results showed that the laser irradiation had had a positive photobiomodulation effect on inflammation, confirmed by a better histologic pattern than that of the control group at 3 days and 7 days. Semiquantitative analysis revealed that groups A and B had a histologic score significantly greater than that of the control group at 3 days. At 21 days, histomorphometric analysis revealed a more intense inflammation in the red laser group than in the other groups. We concluded that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has positive effects on the photobiomodulation of inflammation in the tissues surrounding the poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid (PLLA/PGA) bioabsorbable plate. It stimulated vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, and collagen deposition.
Effect of low-level laser therapy on Candida albicans growth in patients with denture stomatitis.
Maver-Biscanin M, Mravak-Stipetic M, Jerolimov V.
Department of Prosthodontics, Clinical Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Photomed Laser Surg. 2005 Jun;23(3):328-32. [PMID: 15954824]
Objective: The purpose of our report is to present the effect of low-level laser therapy on Candida albicans growth and palatal inflammation in two patients with denture stomatitis.
Background data: The most common oral mucosal disorder in denture wearers is denture stomatitis, a condition that is usually associated with the presence of the yeast Candida albicans. Different treatment methods have been suggested to treat this symptom, none of which is proven to be absolutely effective.
Methods: Two denture-wearing patients, both with palatal inflammation diagnosed as Newton type II denture stomatitis were treated with low-power semiconductor diode laser (BTL-2000, Prague, Czech Republic) at different wavelengths (685 and 830 nm) for 5 d consecutively. In both patients, palatal mucosa and acrylic denture base were irradiated in noncontact mode (probe distance of 0.5 cm from irradiated area) with different exposure times-5 min (830 nm, 3.0 J/cm2, 60 mW) and 10 min (685 nm, 3.0 J/cm2, 30 mW). The effect of laser light on fungal growth in vivo was evaluated after the final treatment using the swab method and semiquantitative estimation of Candida albicans colonies growth on agar plates. The severity of inflammation was evaluated using clinical criteria.
Results: After lowlevel laser treatment, the reduction of yeast colonies on the agar plates was observed and palatal inflammation was diminished.
Conclusion: LLLT is effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis. Further placebo controlled studies are in progress.
Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in temporomandibular joint disorders: a placebo-controlled study.
Fikácková H, Dostálová T, Navrátil L, Klaschka J.
Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Photomed Laser Surg. 2007 Aug;25(4):297-303. [PMID: 17803388]
Objective: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment for pain caused by temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) was investigated in a controlled study comparing applied energy density, subgroups of TMD, and duration of disorders.
Background data: Although LLLT is a physical therapy used in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, there is little evidence for its effectiveness in the treatment of TMD.
Methods: The study group of 61 patients was treated with 10 J/cm(2) or 15 J/cm(2), and the control group of 19 patients was treated with 0.1 J/cm(2). LLLT was performed by a GaAlAs diode laser with output of 400 mW emitting radiation wavelength of 830 nm in 10 sessions. The probe with aperture 0.2 cm(2) was placed over the painful muscle spots in the patients with myofascial pain. In patients with TMD arthralgia the probe was placed behind, in front of, and above the mandibular condyle, and into the meatus acusticus externus. Changes in pain were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire.
Results: Application of 10 J/cm(2) or 15 J/cm(2) was significantly more effective in reducing pain compared to placebo, but there were no significant differences between the energy densities used in the study group and between patients with myofascial pain and temporomandibular joint arthralgia. Results were marked in those with chronic pain.
Conclusion: The results suggest that LLLT (application of 10 J/cm(2) and 15 J/cm(2)) can be considered as a useful method for the treatment of TMD-related pain, especially long lasting pain.
Effectiveness of physiotherapy and GaAlAs laser in the management of temporomandibular joint disorders.
Dostalová T, Hlinakova P, Kasparova M, Rehacek A, Vavrickova L, Navrátil L.
Department of Paediatric Stomatology, 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. email@example.com
Photomed Laser Surg. 2012 May;30(5):275-80. [PMID: 22551049]
Objective: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a treatment method commonly used in physiotherapy for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to monitor the function of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and surrounding tissues and compare the objective measurements of the effect of LLLT.
Background data: LLLT has been considered effective in reducing pain and muscular tension; thus improving the quality of patients’ lives.
Materials and methods: TMJ function was evaluated by cephalometric tracing analysis, orthopantomogram, TMJ tomogram, and computer face-bow record. Interalveolar space between central incisors before and after therapy was measured. Patients evaluated pain on the Visual Analog Scale. LLLT was performed in five treatment sessions (energy density of 15.4 J/cm(2)) by semiconductive GaAlAs laser with an output of 280 mW, emitting radiation wavelength of 830 mm. The laser supplied a spot of ~0.2 cm(2).
Results: Baseline comparisons between the healthy patients and patients with low-level laser application show that TMJ pain during function is based on anatomical and function changes in TMJ areas. Significant differences were seen in the posterior and anterior face height. The results comparing healthy and impaired TMJ sagittal condyle paths showed that patients with TMJ pain during function had significantly flatter nonanatomical movement during function. After therapy, the unpleasant feeling was reduced from 27.5 to 4.16 on the pain Visual Analog Scale. The pain had reduced the ability to open the mouth from 34 to 42 mm.
Conclusions: The laser therapy was effective in the improvement of the range of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and promoted a significant reduction of pain symptoms.
Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in patients with acute and chronic temporomandibular disorders.
Salmos-Brito JA, de Menezes RF, Teixeira CE, Gonzaga RK, Rodrigues BH, Braz R, Bessa-Nogueira RV, de Martínez Gerbi ME.
Dental School, University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lasers Med Sci. 2012 Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print] [PMID: 22367394]
The purpose of this study was to address the following question: among patients with acute or chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD), does low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduce pain intensity and improve maximal mouth opening? The sample comprised myogenic TMD patients (according Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD). Inclusion criteria were: male/female, no age limit, orofacial pain, tender points, limited jaw movements and chewing difficulties. Patients with other TMD subtypes or associated musculoskeletal/rheumatologic disease, missing incisors teeth, LLLT contra-indication, and previous TMD treatment were excluded. According to disease duration, patients were allocated into two groups, acute (<6 months) and chronic TMD (≥ 6 months). For each patient, 12 LLLT sessions were performed (gallium-aluminum-arsenide; λ = 830 nm, P = 40 mW, CW, ED = 8 J/cm(2)). Pain intensity was recorded using a 10-cm visual analog scale and maximal mouth opening using a digital ruler (both recorded before/after LLLT). The investigators were previously calibrated and blinded to the groups (double-blind study) and level of significance was 5% (p < 0.05). Fifty-eight patients met all criteria, 32 (acute TMD), and 26 (chronic TMD). Both groups had a significant pain intensity reduction and maximal mouth opening improvement after LLLT (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.001). Between the groups, acute TMD patient had a more significant pain intensity reduction (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.002) and a more significant maximal mouth opening improvement (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.011). Low-level laser therapy can be considered as an alternative physical modality or supplementary approach for management of acute and chronic myogenic temporomandibular disorder; however, patients with acute disease are likely to have a better outcome.
Ga-Al-As laser irradiation inhibits neuronal activity associated with inflammation.
Sato T, Kawatani M, Takeshige C, Matsumoto I.
Department of Anesthesiology, Saitama Medical College, Saitama, Japan.
Acupunct Electrother Res. 1994 Jun-Sep;19(2-3):141-51. [PMID: 7863838]
A Ga-Al-As diode system that produces low-energy red light (830 nm, 40 mW) has been used for the treatment of many kinds of pain. The mechanism of action of this new laser irradiation for analgesia was studied in anesthetized rats. The effect of laser irradiation of the saphenous nerve was studied by recording neuronal activity at the L4 dorsal root filaments after the injection of a chemical irritant, turpentine. Laser irradiation inhibited both the asynchronous firing by that was induced by turpentine and increased part of the slow components of the action potentials. Thus, the laser irradiation selectively inhibited nociceptive signals at peripheral nerves.
Laser-Accelerated INFLAMMATION/PAIN REDUCTION AND HEALING
Compromised cells and tissues respond more readily than healthy cells or tissues to energy transfers that occur between LLLT-emitted photons and the receptive chromophores found in the various cells and sub-cellular organelles. Cells and tissues that are ischemic and poorly perfused as a result of inflammation, edema and injury have been shown to have a significantly higher response to LLLT irradiation than normal healthy structures. Cell membranes, mitochondria and damaged neurological structures exhibit less than optimal metabolism and stasis conditions. Multiple studies have demonstrated that under these compromised conditions, the introduction of energy transfers and the resultant enhancement of metabolic activity is most pronounced in biologically challenged components. While it may appear that LLLT is thus selectively targeting compromised cells, in reality, these cells exhibit a lowered reaction threshold to the effects of laser light and are more easily triggered to energy transfer responses. The result is that LLLT has a significant effect on damaged cells and tissues while normative biological constituents are appreciably less affected.
LLLT with trigger points technique: clinical study on 243 patients
Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine and Surgery (Aug. 1996) 14(4):163-167.
Among the various methods of application techniques in low level laser therapy (LLLT) (HeNe 632.8 nm visible red or infrared 820-830 nm continuous wave and 904 nm pulsed emission) there are very promising “trigger points” (TPs), i.e., myofascial zones of particular sensibility and of highest projection of focal pain points, due to ischemic conditions. The effect of LLLT and the results obtained after clinical treatment of more than 200 patients (headaches and facial pain, skeletomuscular ailments, myogenic neck pain, shoulder and arm pain, epicondylitis humery, tenosynovitis, low back and radicular pain, Achilles tendinitis) to whom the “trigger points” were applied were better than we had ever expected. According to clinical parameters, it has been observed that the rigidity decreases, the mobility is restored (functional recovery), and the spontaneous or induced pain decreases or even disappears, by movement, too. LLLT improves local microcirculation and it can also improve oxygen supply to hypoxic cells in the TP areas and at the same time it can remove the collected waste products. The normalization of the microcirculation, obtained due to laser applications, interrupts the “circulus vitiosus” of the origin of the pain and its development (Melzak: muscular tension > pain > increased tension > increased pain, etc.). Results measured according to VAS/VRS/PTM: in acute pain, diminished more than 70%; in chronic pain more than 60%. Clinical effectiveness (success or failure) depends on the correctly applied energy dose–over/underdosage produces opposite, negative effects on cellular metabolism. We did not observe any negative effects on the human body and the use of analgesic drugs could be reduced or completely excluded. LLLT suggests that the laser beam can be used as monotherapy or as a supplementary treatment to other therapeutic procedures for pain treatment.